Energy and water have always been closely intertwined. Water is essential for all phases of energy production, from fossil-fuels to

bio-fuels and power plants. Slowly people are starting to realize that:

  1. making a transition in energy and water is a very similar process
  2. this is a not a problem you can address as government or commercial business yourself, you need a combined effort of all parties involved in the process

In more detail: Water Investment Planning

Governments around the world are developing incentives to encourage municipalities, industry, and the agriculture-sector to maximize water recycling and cross-sector effluent re-use, in order to meet the growing demands for clean water, and to protect and conserve our natural fresh water resources.

But how best to assess the available options for water recycling and the cross-sector re-use of effluents? And how to develop an investment proposition in water infrastructure that meets the demands and interests of all stakeholders involved? That is where our model comes in.

Water authorities first of all need insight in the current water system, and in the options to “upgrade” wastewater streams from one sector for transport and re-use by another sector. Our proprietary model considers all water sources, and matches water supply to water demand from the municipalities, industry, and the agri- and horticulture sector. The model identifies the cross-sector effluent re-use scheme that can meet the (growing) demands for water at the lowest costs/highest margin. The model then plots the required investments in water treatment technology, water storage, and water transport solutions in time over the investment horizon.

This way we support the development of credible, affordable, and competitive transition pathways towards circular water systems!

Key challenges in the development of cross-sector effluent re-use schemes are of technical, economic, relational, organizational, and political nature:

Our model addresses all of these challenges.

For more information see:

In more detail: Integrated Energy System Modelling

Deep decarbonization of manufacturing & energy systems is required to mitigate climate change. Integrated System Modelling can be used to assist in evaluation possible transition pathways towards a low CO2 situation.

Integrated System Modelling (ISM) is a dedicated application of the more generic network simulation and optimisation algorithm. It is based on a detailed techno-economic description of the conversion of resources, intermediates, final products & energy flows. ISM systematically explores how to use - over a given time horizon - optionality in resource availability, conversion capacity in order to meet demand for final products, heat, power, & mobility in the most cost-effective manner. An appropriately defined objective function that maximizes the net present value of the system whilst obeying CO2 emission targets supports the evaluation of options how to be best structure the system. Scope and granularity for system modelling can vary widely: ISM can be applied at country level but also at industrial cluster level.

Integrated System Modelling is based on a mathematical optimization framework that uses a combination of the mathematical modelling system AIMMS and the mixed-integer solver CPLEX. At the heart of ISM lies a Multi-Period Mixed Integer Linear Programming Model designed for strategic value chain studies and supply chain optimization purposes. ISM is a dedicated application of this generic framework with a focus on determining an economically optimal configuration of conversion systems such that it meets CO2 emission targets and demand levels given available raw material & energy resources.

The true value of the implemented mixed-integer linear programming model lies in its multi-period character. In particular, this means that multi-period mixed integer linear programming ensures that from a given set of potential technology investment options, those are selected (with temporal & spatial granularity) such that they minimize the total costs over the entire time horizon. This holistic approach avoids “technology lock-in situations” whereby technology options are selected with regrets later on leading to sub-optimal solutions over the time period considered. ISM adopts a complete end-to-end view both on a time-scale as on an infrastructure scale allowing for a fully integrated system optimisation from raw materials, to intermediates, to finished products that serve demand. ISM also allows to model non-linear ‘economy of scale’ features as multiple capacity choices aligned with relevant line-ups.